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“钠离子电池”来了!万亿巨头宣布大消息,股价暴涨

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本帖最后由 设计二部 于 2021-7-30 09:21 编辑



7月29日收盘,宁德时代(300750.SZ)延续上涨势头,股价大涨6.05%,每股报收556.80元,总市值达到1.1人民币万亿。宁德时代连续两个交易日大涨,股价继续冲高,一扫周二下跌阴霾。

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当日,宁德时代预热许久的钠离子电池亮相,其董事长曾毓群表示,钠离子电池在低温性能、快充以及环境的适应性等方面拥有独特的优势,将与锂离子电池相互兼容互补,多元化的技术路线是动力电池产业长期稳定发展的重要保障。

研发痛点和商业化

曾毓群表示,有人认为电池的化学体系已很难创新,只能在物理结构上做些改进。“但我们认为,电化学的世界,就像能量魔方,未知远远大于已知,我们乐此不疲地探索着其中的奥秘。”
在元素周期表中,钠元素与锂元素位于同一主族,二者的化学性质、电池工作原理非常相似。
钠离子和锂离子也存在差异,锂离子的离子半径、电势等方面优于钠离子,现阶段电芯单体密度锂电池表现更好,并已形成一定规模的市场;钠离子的优势储量大,全球钠资源的地壳丰度为2.65%,而锂资源的地壳丰度为0.0065%,前者的开采难度和提炼成本更低。
有分析指出,锂离子电池负极集流体必须为铜箔,成本高;钠离子电池负极集流体为铝箔,成本更低。按照正极材料、负极材料、电解液、隔膜、集流体等成本预估,钠离子电池的成本比锂离子电池的成本减少30%~40%。
光大证券研报指出,钠离子电池大规模商用后,会具有较大的成本优势,可以有效降低电池的成本。
钠离子的商业化潜力大,但材料研发充满困难。宁德时代研究院副院长黄起森表示,锂离子半径更小,可以自由通过石墨负极,而钠离子是个大胖子,这就意味着在电池的运行过程中,钠离子在材料中的嵌入和脱出对材料的结构稳定性和动力学提出了更高的要求,需要研究新的材料,符合电池的循环和整体指标。

发力钠离子电池

宁德时代布局钠离子电池和车企的选择分不开,中国汽车动力电池产业创新联盟数据显示,2021年5月,我国动力电池产量共计13.8GWh。其中,磷酸铁锂电池5月产量为8.8GWh,占总产量63.6%,磷酸铁锂电池的产量自2018年以来首次反超三元锂电池。
乘联会秘书长崔东树此前告诉记者,动力电池占整车成本的四成左右,成本是车企考虑的主要因素。三元锂电池成分包含钴等贵金属,生产成本较高。
据黄起森介绍,宁德时代此次发布的第一代钠离子电池,电芯单体能量密度已经达到了160Wh/kg,是目前全球最高水平;在常温下充电15分钟,电量就可以达到80%,具备快充能力;在零下20°C低温的环境下,仍然有90%以上的放电保持率;在系统集成效率方面,可达到80%以上。
另据宁德时代内部人士介绍,第一代钠离子电池的循环次数为3000次。

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黄起森在发布会上透露,宁德时代预计2023年形成一条完整的钠离子电池商业化路线,预计将推出AB电池系统集成,把钠离子电池与锂离子电池的集成混合共用。
据悉,电池集成混用是指通过将钠离子电池与锂离子电池同时集成到同一个电池系统中,并按照一定的比例和排列进行混搭,串联、并联集成,再通过BMS的精准算法进行不同电池体系的均衡控制,可以实现取长补短,既弥补了钠离子电池在现阶段的能量密度短板,也发挥出了它高功率、低温性能的优势,这样的锂-钠电池系统,可适配更多应用场景。

宁德时代的电池帝国

宁德时代总部位于福建宁德,这里没有矿产资源,也缺乏高校和人才,GDP排名也位居福建省倒数。
宁德时代2011年成立,2018年仅用24天就完成上市,3年时间成为首家万亿市值的科创板企业。
据韩国能源市场分析公司SNE Research于29日发布的调查结果显示,中国电池巨头宁德时代(CATL)以29.9%的市占率排名第一,已连续4年蝉联动力电池装机量第一。
世纪证券研报显示,宁德时代为动力电池配套车型最多的锂电池厂商,2020年工信部公布的新能源车型目录共有6800余款,其中3400余款由宁德时代配套动力电池,占比达到50%。
2021年一季度财报显示,宁德时代营业收入达到191.67亿元,同比增长112.24%;净利润为19.54亿元,同比增长163%。
宁德时代公司总部的门口有两棵树,有媒体援引宁德时代内部人士观点称,这两棵树是围棋的棋眼,代表宁德时代的电池和储能项目。
宁德时代方面告诉记者,第一代钠离子电池已开始与车企和储能客户进行商业化合作。

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